Particles and Waves – Atoms and Moving Matter

Waves and Particles allow the Energy of a body, or system, or force, to be picked up and transferred to another thing or position. They enable affect. The components of Waves and Particles and all their variable combinations are what make up The Stuff of Matter, the ‘Myriad of All Things’.

Particles are like the energy ingredients of the universal buffet. Waves are like the vessels and utensils of the universal kitchen. The transference of energy is like the cooking, and the variable results.

Subconsciously or consciously, we place our orders, and the universe serves them up but often not in the ways we expect. This should not be underestimated so be careful what you think about… More about that later. Right now, we enter into the realm of quantum and particle physics.

This article deals with Waves and Particles, their purpose and components, and why Atoms are so very, very, important.

Waves

Waves in Physics are everywhere and in everything. Some can be seen such as those caused by ripples in water, and some cannot be seen, like sound waves. When Waves collide, they pass through each other, overlapping and forming all kinds of intricate entanglement patterns.

The type of Wave and the characteristics of the Energy being carried by it, is what determines how one Wave will affect another. The two main categories of Waves are Mechanical Waves, and Electromagnetic Waves.

Mechanical Wave

A Mechanical Wave needs some sort of Matter to move through. When the molecules in a body of Matter bang into each other, they pass on their Energy and this is what allows a Mechanical Wave to move.

Electromagnetic Wave

An Electromagnetic Wave doesn’t need Matter to move through. These Waves can travel through what we call a ‘Vacuum’ which is essentially empty space void of any particles. An Electromagnetic Wave causes a disturbance in Electric and Magnetic Fields, and the Energy in those fields is what allows an Electromagnetic Wave to move.

Longitudinal Waves, Transverse Waves, and Propagation

Depending on which direction these Waves Oscillate whist vibrating, determines what sort of Wave it is.

A Longitudinal Wave {also known as Conditional Wave} moves in a Vertical or Up and Down direction – see image above.

A Transverse Wave moves in a Horizontal direction – see image above.

The ‘Direction of Propagation’ is the direction in which a Waves moves.

Characteristics Of A Wave

Period (T) – The amount of time it takes for a complete cycle of a Wave from Peak to Peak or Trough to Trough, per second (s)

Frequency (f)  – The amount of Waves from point A to point B per second, and measured in Hertz (Hz)

Wavelength (λ) – The distance of a complete cycle of a Wave and measured in metres (m)

Velocity (v) – The speed and distance of a complete cycle, per second and measured in metres per second (m/s)

Amplitude – The furthest distance that a Wave moves away from its position of Equilibrium or ‘Rest’

The shorter the Wavelength the higher the Frequency  – see purple line in image.

The longer the Wavelength, the lower the Frequency – see red line in image.

The higher the Wave moves whilst Vibrating, the greater the Amplitude.

Particles

In Physics, along with Waves, it is Particles that make up almost all of the rest of Matter. Unlike Waves though, when Particles collide, they bounce off each other.

Elementary Particles

The original Elementary Particles have no quantifiable structure, they cannot be made up of anything else. In the context of quantum and particle physics, this is as far back as it goes. These are the original ingredients of Space and the space in Space. And each has a unique and specific purpose and identity.

These Particles are further organised by their spin, with a half-integer or odd number spin such as 1/2 or 3/2 being a Fermion Particle and a full and even number integer spin being a Boson Particle such as 1 or 2.

There are currently twelve recognised Elementary Fermion Particles – six Quarks and six Leptons, with each having their opposite counterpart anti-particles. Currently, there are fewer Boson than Fermion Particles which have been identified and these are known as Force Carrier Particles.

Introducing Neutrinos and The Rest Of The Quantum Gang

These are pretty weird. For example:

  • Photons are Massless and they have no Electric Charge. They are not Light, but one of the Particles found in it
  • Gluons are not really a Particle but rather a force that holds the Energy in a Photon like glue
  • Neutrinos are everywhere and just odd. Depending on the size of your living room, on average there are around 15 BILLION Neutrinos from the Big Bang, floating around your room right now
  • And science is still in debate about what a Quark is

The different identities of these Particles are shown in this illustration and depicted as characters of the behaviour or function that they represent. Note the Neutrino, which Einstein referred to as Ghostly due to its mysterious behaviour.

Northwestern University

However, there is an additional scenario of classification and that is the particles that are restricted to two dimensions and known as Anyons. These are Emergent or Quasi-particles conditional on the excitations that are derived from the activity and interaction of other particles in a Form. They are neither classed as Electrons, or Protons.

Hypothetical Particles

These are exactly that, Such as the suggestion of the Graviton…

Composite Particles

An Atom is an example of a Composite Particle. Whilst it is made up of other components, it is still the smallest whole chemical element unit of Matter. The different compositions of parts are what determines the forms of all Mass.

The Particularly Weird, Wave/Particle Duality Paradox

On a quantum level, It was thought that everything that makes up Matter is expressed as either a Wave or a Particle. That Particles and Waves are existentially opposite in their form and nature. Where a Particle is a source of Matter existing at a singular point – a bit like plucking a guitar string which starts in a state of rest, vibrates, and then returns to its state of rest. As opposed to a Wave which is a source of Matter that moves in a continuous motion of movement, except from the point where it started – a bit like how a slinky moves, and continues to move but not from the stationary point of where it started.

However, Quantum Physics faltered when it found that some quantum scale objects or bodies, like Light, can neither be expressed as a Particle or a Wave, This is eyebrow raising stuff in the world of science. And although it was finally realised that Light can be expressed as both a Particle and a Wave simultaneously, this didn’t follow quantum theory. This is known as the Wave/Particle Duality Paradox.

The concept of duality is profoundly weird in science and has caused a lot of debate amongst the scientific community. Not least because if you ask a room full of Physicists what a Particle is, you’ll get a room full of different theories. All as valid and fascinating as the others but in short, Science does not have a definitive explanation – yet.

Then there’s things like the Buckminsterfullerene to consider, also known as a Bucky-ball. It is the most common and naturally occurring fullerene molecule. It can be found in very small quantities of soot, and both gaseous and solid forms of this molecule have been identified in deepest Space. With the formula C60, it is a spherical fullerene molecule, and visually it has a cage-like structure and is shaped a bit like a football. This molecule is made up of twelve pentagons and twelve hexagons, with a Carbon Atom at each vertex and along each edge of the polygon. A Bucky-ball is one of the largest objects to demonstrate Wave-Particle Duality and its discovery opened a new chapter in the field of chemistry. It’s also related to what is known as black goo and its behaviour is very weird. It’s doing some strange stuff in Space and it’s not at all great.

Atoms – Why Are They So VERY Important?

Re-determined by Leucippus {born 475 BC} in Ancient Greece, was the realization that the divisibility of Matter cannot go on infinitely, that it must stop somewhere. Further, that there must be a smallest whole chemical unit in the known Universe and that anything else would be a sub-part of that. Thus he declared ‘The Atom’ – which means ‘not cut’ in Greek.

Leucippus with Democritus, went on to develop Atomic Theory further. And although most of Leucippus’ work was lost else destroyed after his death, there are two pieces that seemingly survived. They are called The Great World System and On The Mind. The findings are based on an understanding and blending of different Sciences, including Philosophy, and they are very significant..

So why is the Atom so important? Well it’s one of the original whole units of what Space and the space in Space, the entire Universe, You, Me, and everything else, is made up of, and that’s pretty important. But there’s more to it.

Atoms don’t touch. So whilst many people think of things like Tables, Chairs, and even themselves, to be solid objects, they’re not. They’re just a great big amalgamation of the smallest components of Space and a ridiculously high number of Atoms.

There’s also a lot of stuff in Atoms that science hasn’t explained…

So What Is In An Atom? – Sub-Atomic And The Five Atomic

Between the late 1600’s and mid 1700’s, some more really smart people like Huygens, Torricelli, and Newton, brought advancements to physics based on the path that had been laid over 2000 years ago in Ancient Greece, and from timelines going back many thousands of years before then.

Taking up the atomic theory chalice, several more significant figures also added their weighty contributions along with The Five Atomic Models. Essentially and with a firm push into the Quantum realm, The Five Atomic Models determined the sub-atomic parts of the Atom – what an Atom is made up of when it is cut:

  • The Proton – which is Positively Charged and is In the nucleus of the atom
  • The Neutron – which has No Charge and is In the nucleus of the atom
  • The Electron – which is Negatively Charged and Orbits the nucleus of the atom

Atomic Cosmic Facts

Science also figured out that the size of an Atom is about 100 Picometers. And we had to look that one up – it’s One Trillionth of a Meter.  To put that into some sort of context, it’s a few Million times smaller than a grain of sand!

And get this, ONE Human Cell contains around 100 Trillion Atoms  – that’s 100,000,000,000,000 – a 1 followed by 14 Zeros. So depending on weight, the average human body has around 7 Octillion Atoms inside them – that’s a 7 followed by 27 zeros!

We also know other stuff like; 1 Proton is equal to 1837 Electrons.

However, what we also know is that all these things only makes up around 10% of an Atom. The other 90% is space. That’s A LOT, so what’s going on there?…

Changing Atoms Changing You – A Quantum Leap

The concept we need to get our head’s round, and here’s the real quantum bit, is that if another source of energy can exert enough force on a negatively charged Electron, then that Electron can be shifted from its orbit and corresponding Energy level, to either a higher or lower orbit, and corresponding Energy level.

The closer the Electron gets to the nucleus of the Atom, the greater the attraction force  to it and thereby in order for the Electron to shift, the stronger the force being applied to it needs to be. If it’s already far away from the nucleus, the negatively charged Electron is easier to shift from its Orbit.

An Electron will either absorb or radiate the form of Energy that is exerted on it. If the Energy form is strong enough, the Electron will shift its Orbit and corresponding Energy Level. The type of Energy exerted will determine if the shift in Orbit is to a higher or lower Energy Level.

So learn how to change the contents and environment of an Atom by learning what types of Energy will shift the orbit of an Electron, and you can shift the very Energy of it. This includes our own atomic structure and the Energy within and around us. This is the crux of it all.

If we learn how to change the contents and the environment of an Atom, then we can control their behaviour and effect, the Matter they create, and their spin. That means us too, and rather than the other way around. This is ‘Mind Over Matter’ stuff. ‘There Is No Spoon…’  For those who can really understand and apply this concept, the implications are simply huge.

Either way we expand on this understanding as we go along…

The Enigma Of Energy

So on a quantum level, we know how the types of Energy are categorised, how we have different Units for the different forms of Energy, and how this allows us to measure it. We have also learnt how it moves, how it transfers itself from one state to another, and how Energy is transmuted, or transmuted by, other bodies of Mass, or systems, or positions.

We’re All Just a Bunch of Matter – Or Are We?

The Energy of the Particles of Chemicals and Elements are picked up and dropped off by Waves, which form the different types of Atoms., such as a Hydrogen Atom, … and these go on to form different states of Matter and Mass. These are the ‘Myriad Of All Things’, the Galaxies, Stars, Planets, Mountains, Oceans, Trees, Plants, Planes, Trains and Automobiles, Tables, Chairs and TVs, Animals and of course Humans. Everything. These are the Physical Representations of Energy.

Physical Energy

We also need to understand that Energy represents itself in both Physical and Non-Physical Forms. In Physics, Energy is interpreted on a fundamental level through our five standard senses, including what we can See and Hear. These are due to the Waves and Particles of Sound and Light. Without these, there is no Matter…

Non-Physical Energy

As all the great minds of those from moments gone by have been telling us, Energy also represents itself as Non-Physical. Demonstrated by Torricelli and others, we know that there are forms of Energy that we cannot see or hear. Aside from these other states of matter like Air, there are still additional non-physical energies that exist and that cannot be seen. And the space in Space, has a lot to do with all this. It is also why Science has some missing gaps in its knowledge because we need additional non-physical methods to interpret non-physical energy and these can be difficult to understand and quantify within the rational parameters of Physics.

For example, in terms of the human anatomy, the Chinese explain forms of non-physical energy; in the sense that it is usually unseen, through Radian Circuits.

Then there are other forms of non-physical energy; again in the sense that it can not usually be seen, and these are things like the energies of Telekinesis, Telepathy, Teleportation, and Clairaudience, although we predict we are going to see more and more examples of these in the months and years to come.

In the meantime, on a quantum physics level, non-physical energy is largely down to what’s in spaces. So, as we continue to sift through historic, traditional, and renewed knowledge, we find the clues and pull it all together to explain what’s really going on, and just how much has been kept hidden from us. As we continue through the subjects, we can begin to draw on the parallels within them and ultimately learn how to change our own inner and outer environment. That means our bodies, our health, and our experiences in life.

As above, so below, as within, so without… and we are at the cutting edge of it all…

N.A.S.A.

References

http://www.northwesternuniversity.com; http://www.space.com; http://www.britannica.com; spark.iop.org; http://www.sitespit.edu; http://www.nasa.com; http://www.physicsworld.com; http://www.hyperphysics.edu; http://www.byjus.com; http://www.physics.classroom.com; http://www.toppr.com; http://www.acs.psu.edu; http://www.compoundchem.com; http://www.wired.com; https://http://www.discovermagazine.com/the-sciences/bosons-fermions